The Nazi Holocaust in Europe and slavery and Jim Crow in the United States are outgrowths of the same ideology‚ÄĒthe belief that human beings can be delineated into categories that share immutable biological traits distinguishing them from one another and determining their potential and behavior.

The Nazi Holocaust in Europe and slavery and Jim Crow in the United States are outgrowths of the same ideology‚ÄĒthe belief that human beings can be delineated into categories that share immutable biological traits distinguishing them from one another and determining their potential and behavior. In Europe, with its history of anti-Jewish persecution and violent religious divisions, the conception of Jews as a biological ‚Äúrace‚ÄĚ with particular characteristics was used by the Nazis to justify the Holocaust. In the United States, the invention of race was used to justify the institution of chattel slavery, on the basis that Black people were biologically suited to permanent servitude and unfit for the rights the nation‚Äôs Founders had proclaimed as universal. The American color line was therefore much more forgiving to European Jews than the divisions of the old country were. But they are branches of the same tree, the biological fiction of race.

Adam Serwer, ‚ÄúWhoopi Goldberg‚Äôs American Idea of Race,‚ÄĚ The Atlantic, February 3, 2022. https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2022/02/whoopi-goldbergs-american-idea-race/621470/.

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